ACTUAL FLOW RATE is the actual volume of fluid that passes a given point in a pipe per unit time e.g. l/min. This can be a useful measurement to have, however since gases are compressible the volume of gas will vary depending on its pressure and temperature.
JCA Page 2 CAE toolSecond moment of area,. Also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis.The second moment of area is typically denoted with either an I for an axis that lies in the plane or with a J for an axis perpendicular to the plane.
EN 10083-2 Grade C45 European standard covers quenching and tempering And Technical delivery conditions for non alloy steels. Pipe will be supplied in 5-7 metre random lengths with butt-weld ends and varnished to avoid oxidation of the steel when in storage.